Nationalism In India/ Causes Of Nationalism

Nationalism In India
Nationalism In India

Nation or country is such a people group which lives independently on a certain land and is integrated on the basis of community feelings of freedom, equality and fraternity . Nationalism is the feeling of patriotism, intimacy , affection , sacrifice and devotion toward the nation, form of state. some class or species and its area of land is included in the meaning of nation . In the Indian concept of Nation , there is particular significance of culture. Nation, country and state in India could be understood from the following tables
Compulsory Elements                              Nation                   Country                       State
1.                                                               People                    People                         People
2.                                                              Culture                     Land                           Sovereignty
If all the four Elements – People, Land ,Sovereignty and Culture are availabale , it is regarded as an ideal state.

Origin and Development Of Nationalism:

British scholars – Sir John Stretchy and Sir John Sede have told India Nationalism to be the outcome of 19th century . They consider that of Nationalism aroused due to British coloniaslism . However, But in India , the concept of Nationalism is extremely ancient. We get a clear knowledge of Nationalism from Vedic Literature. There is a clear cut interpretation of Nation in the Yajurveda an Atharvaveda and this also has explained in Yajurveda what must be the duties of the citizens towards the Nation. In this way, when there is a clear concept of Nation in the Vedas, it is not viable to say that Nationalistic feeling aroused due to the influence of Britain of western contries. In fact, Indians had a feeling of honour and respect towards India since the very begining . It is the symbol of our nationalism . Not only this, there was great significance of the concept o cultural nationalism in India. In the ancient time, the description of united India is found, of which, cultural influence pervaded across the entire middle Asia.
Since the middle of the 19th century, a feeling of national awareness was aroused amongst Indian people against the British, which resulted into National Movement of India. Nationalism arouses the feeling of  ‘We’ instead of “T” among the people.


Cause of National Renaissance: 

The India national renaissance of 19th century was reaction against the economic, political and cultural opperssion in India by the British rulers. Through the force of power of national feelings, Indians forced the British to quit India. The English Started dominance over India from Bengal. Kolkata was the British capital of India till 1911 AD. So, most of their influence was established over there, following are the reasons of National Renaissance in India

1. Influence of Dignified History of India :

Because of deep and vast knowledge, India was considered to be “World Teacher” ( Vishva Guru ) in ancient time. In ancient times, our great men and rulers tried to bring India under uniformity. Due to the inspiration of this dignity, in the 19th century , a national feeling aroused against the Britishers. The knowledge of this dignified history and glorious culture was brought through the translation of Sanskrit books into English by western scholars – William Jones, Princess, Max muller, Ferguson , and Indian scholar Rajendra Lal Mitra. In 1861 AD, archaeological survey and excavation was started under the leadership of Cunningham. It came to be known through excation that there had been a highly developed culture in India since time immermorial . Through the knowledge of ancient glory of India, self confidence was aroused in the country and country got inspiration for nationalism . Not only scholars, but the European scholars also regarded the Vedic knowledge of India to be extremely important for the welfare of the world .

2. Influence of British Rule :

Due to the economic and cultural exploitation of India by the Brishers, there was bitter protest against their policies. From 1837 to 1857, there were many revolts against the British policies, in which civil revolts, tribal revolts, peasant revolts were included. Indians had understood that British imperialistic power could never be beneficial for India. The short sighted and reactive policies of Lord Lytton aroused most dissatisfaction amongst the Indians. National movement in India as the outcome of reaction against British rule.

3. Influence of English Education:

Although Lord Macaulay wanted the Indians to be mentally retarded by spreading English education and laguage, but English language became a liaison language to the world for Indians. Indian youngsters began to take interest in higher study and this encouraged National awareness.
4. Influence of the Contact with Western  Philosophers and Thinkers :
Through English language, Indian youngsters came into contact with Burke, Bentam, Mill Rousseau, Milton, Spencer, etc. They were influenced with thoughts of there scholars . This also injected nationalism among the youngsters.

5. Contribution of Indian Literature:

Indian poets and writers composed literature full of patriotism :Anand Math” and “Neel Darpan” plays were staged, which encouraged Nationalism. Anand Math of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee became the synonym of patriotism. The song “Vande Mataram” is his composition. The contemporary litterateurs showed their deep devotion towards the motherland . The song “Vande Mataaram” became the main source of inspiration for the national freedom fighters. Other writers like Hem Chandra Banerjee, Navin Chandra Sen , R.C. Dutt , Rabindra Nath Tagore, Badri Narain Chaudhary, Pratap Narain Mishra, Bal Krishna Bhatt, etc. contributed a lot to rouse national feelings through their compositions.

6. Beginning of use of Printing Machine and Contribution of Newspapers :

Newspapers and magazines are the most effective means of communication. In 1800 AD, printing started at  Serampore near Kolkata and ther was rapid growth in newspaper printing. First newspaper ” India Gazette” in 1774 AD and “Bengal Gazette” in 1780 AD were published . From one point “Miratul” pulished. The publication of first newspaper in Hindi “Udant Martand” was started in 1826 AD . The newspapers protested openly against inperialistic and exploitative papyrus of East India Company. The thought of Indian social reformers and political thinkers began to the newspaper named ” Som Prakash” and Harish Chandra Mukherjee published the “Hindu Patriot” . Amrit Bazar Patrika began to be published in 1868 AD. Tilak published  “kesari in Marathi language and “Maratha” in English languagew. These newspapers created an atmosphere of sacrifice and nationalism in  India.

7. Adoption of a policy full of discrimination towards Indian people by the British :

There were some policies adopted by the British which aroused dissatisfaction among Indians. Such works were deprivation of Indians from higher posts in army and administration, maintaining of discrimination towards  Indians, insult and oppression of Indians after 1857 Revolution and inequality between Indians and Britishers before law.

8. Influence of religions and social reformation movement ;

Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and Ramkrishna Mission played a vital role to eradicate the evils pervading  in religion and society in the beginnig of Indian freedom movement. Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Swami Dayanand Saraswati removed such evils and aroused affection for the nation. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the founder of Brahmo Samaj, is called to be the Precursor of modern India. he laid emphasis on spreading modern education. He struggled for the freedom of press and liberty. keshub Chandra Sen, another person related to Brahmo Samaj, laid emphasis on th use of Hindi for social eqality and personal liberty. He visited the entire country and made efforts to unite different sects. The founder of Arya Samaj laid stress on use of native things Vivekanand enhanced the honour of India by preaching Vedant  in thew Conference of world Religions in Chicago in 1893 AD. He laid stress on political freedom and respect to the ancient have played a vital role to five pace to nationalism in India.


9. Economic Exploitation of India ;

Ther was great dissatisfaction amongst. Indians towards the economic exploitation committed by the British. The Cottage industries of India had been destroyed. The British used to purchase raw material from  India at a very low price obtained. They exploited India by the means of the investment of foreign capital in India and Indian protested against the usurpation of maoney from India, destructions of cottage industries, exploisation of farmers , etc.

10. National Movement and Freedom of India :

Being inspired with the feeling of nationalism , Indians continued the national movement for the freedom of the country . India got freedom on August 15, 1947, with the efforts of freedom fighters, non- violence movement by Mahatma Gandhi and sacrifice of revolutionaries. For the freedom of the country, the main personalities who played important roles were revolutionaries Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Chandra shekhar Azad, Chapekar Brothers, Ashfaqulla  Khan, Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Kushi Ram Bose, Prafulla Chandra, Vasudev Balvant Farke, Veer Savarkar, Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhlale, Aurobindo Ghose, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel etc.

Freedom Struggle of 1857:

Nationalism In India
Nationalism In India

With special reference to Rajasthan, greater dissatisfaction had been continuously increasing in India against the British. The imperialistic policy and economic exploitation made this dissatisfaction more rapid. The first freedom struggle in 1857 was outcome of this dissatisfaction. The British scholars called it to be Sepoy Mutiny or “Gadar”, but is not true. Veer savarkar called this revolution to be the first battle for freedom. The British had to face the first time, the organized protest of Indians.

 

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