Political Development In India / Merging States / Kashmir Merger


Political development in India /Merging states/ / Kashmir Merger
Political development in India /Merging states/ / Kashmir Merger


The nation of India is not just a root object including a part of land surface of earth, forest, mountains and rivers. This great and ancient nation has been a source of human enlightenment, peak of human civilization, an example of courage and humanity and an ideal of good governance and an organized society . We have taken birth and been nurtured in such a country , where accumulation and extension of knowledge has been taking place since the beginning of mankind. Right from the beginning  truth, justice, charity, and welfare, of the world have been the basis of Indian nation. This ancient nation was not only developed with cultural and religious point of view, but it was also developed in the political sector in a broad form. Many republican elements have been noticed from ancient  Vedic literature and n administrative systems of the time of Mahajanapadas. The theories of organized political system and political science have been integrated in Manu’s Manu smriti, Sukra’s sukra-niti- sara and Kautilya’s Arthashastra. The concepts of great emperors and the beliefs of  Ashwamedha Yagna, etc. in reality , have been the source of principles for political integration and the establishment of great kingdoms. In this way, since ancient time, India has been united national unit, not only in thoughts, but also in political realism. This India has always been such a nation in the thoughts in our learned devotees, which they have been referring to as a ‘country’ situated in th south . The concept of Nationalism is the truth of  Indian history. Therefore, it is not true to say that , ‘As caravans joined, India continued to be built’, because every nation contains a soul, it has emotional unity, a nation is not only a group of large population, but it also contains the spirit of consciousness across the board. This reverence and spirituality could not be achieved merely by the joining of caravans.
However, this is true that as per historical evidence, India has been ruled by various dynasties and rules , but a feeling of national consciousness has always been present here. The struggle of opposition against medieval invasions played the role in developing the spirit of nationalism even more. After that, the national movement which started against colonial rule, conferred a similar political identity and fidelity. A unity of integrated nationalism was working more deeply rooted inside the diversities of language, caste, region, community, attire and drink. In this way , while placing a view on India from ancient to present time, this is clear that political development and integration taking place over here is a result of a constant and uninterrupted process. This is not the outcome of slavery of the Britishers . Therefore, for its unique form, modern India is indebted towards its abiding and agreeable history, and not towards the colonial rule.

On the eve of independence , India was suffering from such a grounded political problem, which hardly may have been experienced by any other country. India had been mainly divided into two parts during the British rule, one was British India which was under the direct subjugation of the Britishers which called as ‘British India’. The Britishers had divided this British India into provinces
, whose responsibility of governance was of the Governor and his other subordinates. On the other hand, another part of India existed, which was called as ‘Princely States’. There was titilar rule of rulers over there states. but actually , but making alliances, these rulers had accepted the subjagation of the Britishers , At the time when the Britishers were going away, leaving India in 1947, there were more than 500 of such small- big states, Rajwadas, Stations, etc. as “Princely States’. forty per cent out of the total surface area of the country was under the princely states, where one – third part of the total population of the country resided. the shape, position, political status and ambitions of these were  different. On one hand,there big states such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, which were equal to some countries in Europe. On the other hand, There were such small states, in which only around a dozen villages existed. some states were  such, which had bravely faced the invasions made from 11th to 16th century, while there were some states which were themselves associated with such invasions. Many states had played the role of supporting the East  India Company, which had started as an enterprise of businessmen and had later established its control over the entire country, while some others had even ended their existence while making attempts to prevent the establishment of this new empire .

To take care of those friendly alliances, on the basis of which the colonial rule was related to these princely states, there was a ‘Political department’ which used to be under the control of the working committee of the Vicerou In 1946, when an interim government was formed in India. Then the administration of political department was conferred to the home ministry. The home ministry was held by Sardar patel. Therefore, the matters of princely states came under Sardar patel itself. Viceroy Mounbatten wished to solve the case of princely states before independence itself. Therefore, even before 15 August 1947 he formed an State Department on government . On the other hand , through the Indian Independence Act, 1947 the British government declared , that along with the India’s independence , the British rule over princely states will also come to an end and the rulers of these princely states will be free to merge with anyone, either India or the newly formed Pakistan. The work of merging these princely states in India to complete the process of amalgamationwas very had and full of challanges, and for the purpose of merging most of the princely states within india even before 15 August, 1947, they both jointly got prepared a ‘Merger Agreement’, and by making the rules sign the agreement, merged them into India. Only the merger of princely states of Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh remained.

Merger of Kashmir in India

Kashmir was the most important state of colonial India. Not onnly its surface area was the highest, but its geographical position was also significant with factical point of view. Its boundaries met with afghanistan, China and Tibet . There were mainly four parts of the state of Kashmir Jammu region, which were attached with Punjab, which was comparatively a populated region of Gilgit and Balistan . the work of bringing these faraway regions under a single umbrella was done by Dogra Rajput family of Jammu, who won Ladakh in decade of 1830 and had obtained Kashmir valley from the Britishers in 1840 At the time of independence, due ot being situated at the India-Pakistan border, this state was very significant from strategic point of view. Kashmir was ruled by Maharaja Harisingh since 1925 AD. Muslim Conference was formed in Kashmir in 1932, which worked towards developing dissatisfaction against the  Maharaja . Later, it was named as National Conference, and Sheikh Abdullah became its senior leader. Till 15 August , 1947, Maharaja harisingh had not taken any decision regarding his state. On the other hand , Pakistan wanted to merge Kasmir into it , by hook or by crook. It attempted to give many temptations and incentives to the Maharaja, but was not successful. At this just aafter  independence, Pakistan started intruding its army in Kashmir in the guise of intruders since September, 1947. In the end of October , Pakistan army had reached near Srinagar. on 26 October, 1947. a meeting was held in New Delhi on the issue of situation of Kashmir , in which Mehr chand Mahajan, the Prime minister of Kashmir and Sheikh Abdullah of the National Conference were present. Mahajan and Sheikh, both appealed to the Indian government to send army in Kashmir and fight off the Pakistani itruders. On 26 October, 1947, Maharaja Harisingh merged Kashmir on the basis of the same merger agreement . by which other states were merged. Maharja said,” Through this, i accept this merger agreement.” According to the Indian Independence Act, 1947, after signing of the merger agreement by the ruler, along with the person who did the signature, no one else had the right to oppose it . In this way, the state of Jammu & Kashmir was merged in India and in the year 1950, Kashmir was included as a state in Part B in the first schedule of the constitution of India.

In the year 1951, Election were held for the Consituent Assembly of the state of Jammu & Kashmir . The 75 member Constituent Assembly also approved the merger of the state of Jammu & Kashmir in India on 6 february, 1954. According to article 3 of the consitution of amendment could be made in this article” in this, the then Maharaja through the merger agreement and the constituent assembly through its declaration, got Jammu &  kashmir completely merged in India and it became and integrat part of India. To protest its state of jammu & Kashmir from tribal attacks of Pakistan, the Indian government sent its army in from Pakistan . however, Around one-third part of the tatal surface area of Kashmir  was still under Pakistan’s control. Then , in the year 1948, on the advice of  Lord Mountbatten , India agreed to take the matter into the United nations Organization. The United Nations formed a commission and established peace between both of them. As a result,one-third part of Jammu & Kashmir still lies with Pakistan , which we call as “Pakistan occupied Kashmir”.

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